This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Transactional distance theory was developed in the 1970s by Dr.
Transactional distance theory states that when an instructional designer makes decisions, these decisions will result in a certain amount of structure, dialog and autonomy. These amounts can be either unwitting consequences of the instructional design process, or the result of conscious instructional design decisions. Regardless, these variables interact to create transactional distance which Michael G.
A number of researchers have used Moore’s theory as the theoretical underpinning for the development of a number of statistically valid and reliable scales to measure transactional distances. Some of these are listed below together with a brief description. By the turn of the millennium, distance education had evolved from being synonymous with correspondence courses to being largely web-based. Moore’s theory by proposing that transactional distance could be viewed as a measure of the student’s difficulty in becoming actively engaged with their online learning environment. Zhang’s Scale of Transactional Distance provides a numerical measure for transactional distance based on a five point Likert Scale.
Many studies do not lend themselves to pre-post intervention comparisons. There are many changes in the educational environment that have occurred since Zhang developed her Scale of Transactional Distance: Online education is the fastest growing segment of higher education, mobile computing has become ubiquitous, MOOC’s provide an unprecedented amount of online content to learners and instructors alike. Zhang’s model was re-evaluated in light of these changes. This scale builds on Michael G. Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance to measure the transactional distances of students who are conducting research in virtual group collaborative environments.
This 46 element scale was also shown to be statistically valid and reliable. A path analysis of the concepts in Moore’s theory of transactional distance in a videoconferencing learning environment. Transactional distance in World Wide Web learning environments. Dimensions of transactional distance in World Wide Web learning environment: A factor analysis. Transactional distance revisited: Bridging face and empirical validity.