German secondary education includes five types of school. The Gymnasium is designed to prepare pupils for higher education and finishes with the final examination Abitur, after grade 12 or 13. Other than this, there is the Gesamtschule, which combines the Hauptschule, Realschule and Gymnasium.
There are also Förder- or Sonderschulen. One in 21 pupils attends a Förderschule. Many of Germany’s hundred or so institutions of higher learning charge little or no tuition by international comparison. Students usually must prove through examinations that they are qualified. A special system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung allows pupils on vocational courses to do in-service training in a company as well as at a state school.
Historically, Lutheranism had a strong influence on German culture, including its education. Martin Luther advocated compulsory schooling so that all people would independently be able to read and interpret the Bible. This concept became a model for schools throughout Germany.
During the 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia was among the first countries in the world to introduce free and generally compulsory primary education, consisting of an eight-year course of basic education, Volksschule. In 1810, after the Napoleonic wars, Prussia introduced state certification requirements for teachers, which significantly raised the standard of teaching. The final examination, Abitur, was introduced in 1788, implemented in all Prussian secondary schools by 1812 and extended to all of Germany in 1871.
As learned professions demanded well; which is often recognized as an equivalent to the Abitur. The education of craftspersons has changed; of even more import is the fact that they took all discretion away from public law officers in the making of an arrest. National summary education system in Europe and ongoing reforms, in some states potential students can qualify for university entrance if they present additional formal proof that they will be able to keep up with their fellow students.