Károly Manheim in the original spelling, was a Hungarian-born sociologist, influential in the first half of the 20th century and one of the founding fathers of classical sociology as well as a founder of the sociology of knowledge. Mannheim was born in Budapest, to a Hungarian father who was a textile manufacturer and a German mother.
He studied at the University of Budapest as well as in Berlin, Paris and Heidelberg. During the brief period of the Hungarian Soviet, in 1919, he taught in a teacher training school thanks to the patronage of his friend and mentor György Lukács, whose political conversion to communism he did not share. After an unsuccessful attempt to gain a philosopher as sponsor in Heidelberg, he began work in 1924 under the German sociologist Alfred Weber, brother of the well-known sociologist Max Weber. In 1933, after being ousted from his professorship under the terms of the anti-Semitic law to purge the civil service, he fled the Nazi regime and settled in Britain where he became a lecturer in Sociology at the London School of Economics, under a program to assist academic exiles.
Mannheim was a precocious scholar and an accepted member of two influential intellectual circles in Budapest. According to the sociologist Longhurst, the Sonntagskreis “rejected any ‘positivist’ or ‘mechanist’ understanding of society and was dissatisfied with the existing political arrangements in Hungary. The way forward was seen to be through the spiritual renewal entailed in a revolution in culture”. Mannheim’s theory on the sociology of knowledge is based on some of the epistemological discoveries of Immanuel Kant and the sociology of knowledge is known as a section of the greater field known as the sociology of culture.
Marx’s father was a prosperous lawyer, hegel’s signature concept was that of the dialectic, arguing that the modern state represents the height of historical evolution and the final resolution of historical contradictions. In answering this question, mannheim was a precocious scholar and an accepted member of two influential intellectual circles in Budapest.