1950s, scientists like Doctors Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin had isolated the poliovirus strains to make vaccines. Salk’s strains would be inactivated with formaldehyde and injected into children.
Sabin’s strains would be attenuated or weakened by transferring or passaging the live viruses through different host cells and then fed to children orally. Because his goal was to create a live attenuated vaccine, Dr. Once their strains were isolated, pharmaceutical companies needed a method to propagate the viruses in order to produce the vast quantities of vaccine needed for nation-wide immunization campaigns. This required a substrate upon which the poliovirus could be efficiently grown and harvested. Kidney cells from rhesus monkeys were chosen because they were found to be an effective growth medium.
There was a problem, however, with using these monkey kidney cells to both create the original vaccine strains and grow the vaccine in large quantities. When the poliovirus was passaged through the monkeys or grown on the monkey kidney cells for production, extraneous viruses became part of the final poliovirus vaccine. Our scientific staff have emphasized to us that there are a number of serious scientific and technical problems that must be solved before we could engage in large-scale production of live poliovirus vaccine.
Most important among these is the problem of extraneous contaminating simian viruses that may be extremely difficult to eliminate and which may be difficult if not impossible to detect at the present stage of the technology. Between 1959 and 1960, Bernice Eddy, Ph. These were the cells of the same species of monkeys used to create and produce the oral polio vaccine.
Eddy discovered that the cells would die without any apparent cause. Viruses are commonly carried by monkeys and may appear as contaminants in cell cultures of their tissues, especially the kidney . The vacuolating virus was another name for SV40.