University of maryland dissertations

Cambridge movement, a civil rights struggle in Cambridge, Maryland in the early 1960s. Gloria Richardson was born to John and Mable Hayes during the Great Depression, she was a member of the affluent St.

Clair family, which owned a successful grocery store, funeral home, and had extensive rental property. Reginald Robinson and William Hansen were sent to Cambridge to get civil rights actions started. They started sit- ins in February to protest segregated facilities in Cambridge. Richardson’s daughter Donna was among fellow students who supported the demonstrators.

Richardson and Yolanda Sinclair were some of the parents of participating students who wanted to show their support. The Cambridge Movement involved black Cambridge residents sitting in at segregated movie theaters, bowling alleys, and restaurants, but after a survey, the movement evolved into a struggle for the economic rights of Cambridge citizens, many of whom were burdened with low wages and unemployment. The Cambridge protests escalated into a major riot in June 1963. On June 11th, following the attack of six white and black demonstrators by white patrons on Dizzyland General Gelston of the National Guard declared himself in charge of the town and set up new rules.

He proposed a curfew at 9 P. 10, stores were to close at 2 P. 9, a ban on firearms, and automobile searches. By the autumn of 1963, black children were entering previously all-white schools, bus transportation was desegregated, the library and hospital were desegregated, and a black policeman was promoted.

In this period, Richardson rose to national prominence as a civil rights leader. A flare-up occurred in Cambridge in May 1964 when Richardson led a march protesting an appearance by segregationist George C. Wallace at the Fireman’s Arena, a segregated ice-skating rink that had been the target of many of the original protests. A month later, Richardson left Cambridge and married Frank Dandridge, a photographer she had become acquainted with during the demonstrations, and settled in New York City.

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